Declaration of Independence – July 4, 1776:


Memories of Dad

Independence Day was one of Dad’s favorite holidays and the source of some of my most cherished childhood memories. My dad loved fireworks, homemade ice cream, and watermelon. I have many wonderful memories of tasting the salt water as it leaked out as Dad cranked to make the ice cream. Like most kids, I would drive Dad crazy asking him over and over if the ice cream was done. There is nothing quite as good as homemade ice cream. Something I miss in today’s modern world.

In stark contrast to most of my memories of Dad, Dad would behave like an irresponsible adolescent when it came to fireworks. One of the funnest things I can remember was Dad and his friends from the CSP using various items to aim bottle rockets as they shot them off at the end of the street. They would even hold onto the bottle rockets and black cats before they threw them in the air just after lighting the fuse. Safety was not their first thought, yet fortunately I do not recall anyone getting hurt. Of course, this is something I would never let my children do today.

As much as I treasure these memories of Dad, I am humbled by the historic significance of Independence Day. Over two hundred years ago fifty-six men of diverse backgrounds worked through their differences to reach an agreement of the highest ideals proclaimed in the “Declaration of Independence”. These men risked everything for the belief that men of all walks of life had been given the right from the creator to govern themselves. After thirteen bloody hard fought years, twenty-three of the thirty-nine men that signed the “United States Constitution” were veterans that had fought and survived the Revolutionary War to guaranteed Americans these historic freedoms we all enjoy today.

I am astounded of the bold impassioned words first drafted by Thomas Jefferson with the aid of both John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. In one sentence, these men were able to captured the core character that would shape democracy of both our country and the world:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

It is impossible to appreciate in today’s world how radical the concept that it was “self-evident, that all men are created equal”. The foresight and determination of these men to see that these words would survive all the debates and remain listed so prominently in this document is astonishing considering the obvious contradictions of the society of that time. Although the atrocious practice of slavery would remain in practice for nearly another century, the genesis of the abolition of slavery would be the belief in these very words written by Thomas Jefferson (himself a slave owner).

This radical concept would guide James Madison as he drafted the beginning of the constitution with the prominent words “We the People”. With these three words, Madison established the basis of democracy. It would be these three words that would inspire Abraham Lincoln to say in his iconic Gettysburg Address, “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth.” It is this revolutionary idea that guides not only our country, these words are the basis of every democracy in the world today. 

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

Genealogy research disclosed that I am blessed to be the direct descendant of at least nine dads that fought and served as privates in the front lines of the American Revolutionary War. It is due to their scarifies that today I enjoy the freedom of speech and freedom of religion which allows me to type this blog. Because of men like them, and the many patriotic men and women that have followed their example to fight to preserve this radical experiment, democracy lives on “one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

This day serves as a reminder to all of us that we should never forget the legacy that has been passed on to each and everyone that is blessed to live in this great country. My dad made it a point that I should always strive to do what I knew in my heart was the right thing to do, just as we are taught in the Bible. For if each of us (the people) continues to strive to actively do what is right, setting aside our differences to work together, the freedom of democracy “shall not perish from the Earth.


God bless America!



© C. Carpenter and Surviving December, 2017. Unauthorized use of this material without express written permission is strictly prohibited.

End of Watch – Part 2


Patrolman Carpenter had taken a great risk in an attempt to alert the CSP Dispatcher that he was in trouble along with giving his current location on I-70 near Havana Street (see: End of Watch – 1). Yet even if the CSP Dispatcher had been alerted by these cryptic messages from Dad, any assistance would have been diverted to the interstate Dad had just exited. As Dad was forced to turn left and cross over I-70 heading north on Peoria Street, Dad was driving away from any hope of help coming from the CSP. Not only was Dad driving away from his last reported position, Dad was leaving the highly traveled traffic arteries that he was familiar with and entering into the crime ridden Denver urban neighborhood of Montebello well known to his armed kidnapers.

Montebello was located north of I-70 and northeast of Denver’s Stapleton International Airport. With multiple violent crimes reported daily, Montebello was one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in the Denver metro area. Not only had the CSP agreed not to patrol the highway systems within Denver city limits, the CSP virtually never patrolled residential urban areas.

Crossing over I-70, Patrolman Carpenter drove about a half-a-mile north on Peoria Street through an area of restaurants, motels, and gas stations. At the intersection of Peoria and Albrook Drive, the armed kidnapers directed Dad to turn right and head east on Albrook Drive into an area of Montebello laden with residential apartment complexes. In this residential area, criminal activities were the norm, not the exception, and CSP patrol cars were never seen.

As if by design, only a few hundred yards after turning on east on Albrook Drive Patrolman Carpenter encountered DPD Car #218 headed westbound. Only a few minutes after his last radio transmissions with the CSP dispatcher, for the first time since his ordeal had started Dad was encountering another law enforcement vehicle. Against all odds, Dad had to be hoping that the DPD officers were responding to Dad’s cryptic alert to the CSP Dispatcher. Conversely, the sudden arrival of the DPD patrol car so soon after Dad had disclosed his position had to startle and unnerve the young armed kidnapers.

With these sudden rapid swings of emotions for both Patrolman Carpenter and his young kidnapers in the last few minutes, CSP Car #181 approached DPD Car #218 traveling in the opposite direction. As the patrol cars approached each other, the attention of the DPD officer driving was focused on Dad as he was wondering why a CSP patrol car would be in this neighborhood. Dad calmly smiled and lifted one finger from his hand on the steering wheel in a customary acknowledging wave to the DPD officers as Dad passed within only a few feet of the DPD officer driving, both traveling at relatively slow speeds.

With few exceptions, the only reason for a CSP unit to be in a Denver urban residential neighborhood would be to response to a call for assistance from the DPD.

As DPD Car #218 drove past CSP Car #181, the DPD officer noted the two very young males in the back seat of the CSP patrol car and continued to wonder why a CSP patrolman would be transporting anyone in this very dangerous residential crime area of Montebello. Yet, the relaxed composed expressions from Patrolman Carpenter along with the young age of the back seat occupants alleviated any concerns the DPD officer may have had. Assuming everything was fine, the DPD officer drove on past without a second thought. There simply had not been enough time for the CSP Dispatcher to decipher Dad’s last message and disseminate it to the DPD patrol cars in the area of the “possible need of assistance” for CSP Car 181.

It is difficult to understand why Patrolman Carpenter did not take some type of risk at this point to free himself from his armed kidnapers. Not only was this the first real opportunity since his abduction for Dad to take some type of decisive action that would not place other drivers at risk, Dad had encountered this DPD patrol car within five minutes of taking the great risk of attempting to notify the CSP Dispatcher that he was in trouble. Moreover, Dad had to have known as they entered the residential neighborhood, the kidnapers were getting close to their planned destination.

Perhaps the best explanation can be found within the perceptions of the DPD officer. Dad remained so calm and composed that the DPD officer could not sense Dad was in any danger despite the unheard-of presence of a CSP patrol car in this dangerous urban residential neighborhood of Denver. Dad had a reputation of remaining calm and focused under pressure, a peace and calmness that Christians are promised in the Bible.

As Moses proclaimed in Deuteronomy 31:6 of the Old Testament of the Bible, “Be strong and courageous. Do not fear or be in dread of them (your enemies), for it is the Lord your God who goes with you. He will not leave you or forsake you.”[1] Similarly, in the New Testament of the Bible the Apostle Paul professed in 2 Timothy 1:7, “For God did not give us a spirit of timidity (of cowardice, of craven and cringing and fawning fear), but [He has given us a spirit] of power and of love and of calm and well-balanced mind and discipline and self-control.” [2]

Since the moment of his abduction, every witness described Patrolman Carpenter as remaining composed. From the moment Dad had lost control of his weapon, Dad had not panicked, had not given into fear, and retained his self-control. Dad exhibited these qualities as he negotiated his assigned patrol car through traffic, during his conversations with the CSP Dispatcher, and during his encounter with the DPD officer. Just as promised in the Bible, Dad displayed the attributes detailed in the Bible of how the presence of God would manifest in us during our greatest adversity.

It was approximately 10:10 AM as DPD Car #218 slowly passed out of sight of CSP Car #181. Patrolman Carpenter now had been abducted for approximately thirty minutes as his best and only hope for assistance drove out of sight near at the intersection of Albrook Drive and Peoria Street. Nonetheless, despite the roller coaster of emotions in the past five minutes or so, Dad remained composed. Dad continued to believe that his fate rested with his faith in God, and not in the hands the two young kidnapers.

Within a minute or two of passing the DPD patrol car, the kidnappers directed Patrolman Carpenter to turn left into The Lakes apartment complex after driving past several pedestrians and other vehicles. A large complex, the Lakes Apartments consisted of three large five-story apartment buildings next to clusters of four smaller three-story apartment buildings. After entering the complex, Dad drove slowly around the outer ring of the snow covered circular series of parking lots as the two kidnapers canvassed the area.

As Patrolman Carpenter slowly pulled around to the back of the complex, the snow was getting as deep as the axel of the patrol car. Dad was struggling to avoid getting the patrol car stuck as they approached the end of the back parking lot. Suddenly four thunderous shots were fired from the back seat of the patrol car, impacting Dad in the back of his head and his lifeless body slumped over the steering wheel. The cold-blooded murderers jumped out the patrol car as Car #181 slowly rolled forward until it stopped in the deep snow at the far end of the parking lot sometime around 10:15 AM.

Running in knee-deep snow, the two young murders quickly made their way around the back of the apartment complex into the south end of the apartments on Crown Boulevard. Despite numerous residents in the area hearing the gunshots along with several others watching two young men run from the scene, not one person would contact the police for the next 20-30 minutes. This allowed the two cold-blooded murders to find refuge in a nearby apartment with family and friends.

After watching the patrol car idling in the parking lot for at least twenty minutes, one of the residents called down to the building manager to check on the patrolman to see if he was sleeping in the idling patrol car. The manager approached Car #181 and almost opened the car door before she noticed blood splattered all over inside the car. Shocked by the realization the patrolman had been shot, she screamed as she ran back to the building and another resident notified the DPD a CSP patrolman had been shot. At about the same time, 10:45 AM, some local kids that ran to the nearby fire station to report the patrolman had been shot.

Immediately after receive the call that a patrolman had been shot, the DPD Dispatcher located and directed the nearest DPD patrol car (DPD Car #218) to respond to the Lakes Apartment complex for the reported shooting of a Patrolman. Realizing they had driven past a CSP patrol car near the reported apartment complex, the DPD officers in Car #218 rapidly responded to the scene. Next, DPD notified the CSP Dispatcher of the report at approximately 10:54 AM.

Stunned, the CSP Dispatcher quickly located the nearest CSP patrol car, Car #62, and dispatched it to check out the report and CSP Car #62 proceeded to Albrook and Peoria to “see if there is a CSP unit there”. The Dispatcher next notified his superiors of the report. Without conformation Car #181 had not responded to the accident on the Valley Highway, the CSP Lieutenant notified all CSP patrol cars:

“DPD just got a report there’s a patrolman been shot at Albrook and Peoria. I have 62 going to check on it. I don’t have any units out close to that area..he’s going to check anyway”.

Everyone at CSP was in a state of disbelief. It had been nearly six years since the last CSP patrolman, Patrolman Larry B. Enloe, had been killed in the line-of-duty. Patrolman Enloe was shot and killed on January 8, 1968, after he stopped a stolen blue station wagon for a traffic violation on Interstate 25 north of Trinidad.

Within a few minutes, CSP Car #62 notified the CSP Dispatch Office that “at Albrook and Peoria, DPD just went by, don’t see anything yet”. The CSP Lieutenant directed Car#62 to “go ahead and check around the area”. At this time, the CSP Dispatch Office started attempting to contact all CSP patrol cars assigned to patrol the Denver metro area.

CSP Patrol Car #181 was identified as the only CSP unit that had been near the reported location. Yet, that had been almost an hour earlier when Patrolman Carpenter had affirmed he would respond to an accident at 58th and the Valley Highway. The pieces were coming together and that sick feeling the CSP Dispatcher had in his that Car #181 had been in trouble was getting worse. Desperately hoping he was somehow wrong, the CSP Dispatcher made several unsuccessful attempts to contact CSP Car #181.

CSP Car #62 notified CSP dispatch that he had not “found anything yet”, adding he had been advised the actual location was about a mile east of Peoria and Albrook. At this time, Car #62 was advised that CSP Car #181 had been in the area about an hour ago and there was “no contact now” with car #181. About the same time, DPD notified the CSP Dispatcher that the DPD and the fire department had arrived on the scene. Within minutes, Car #62 confirmed it was Car #181. By 11:08, Car #62 arrived on the scene to confirm Patrolman Carpenter had been killed and “his gun was missing” (see: Aftermath and Investigation).


Denver Post December 27, 1973: Nurse examines covered body of Patrolman Carpenter slumped over the steering wheel of his Colorado State Patrol car after 11 AM.

By sharing the harrowing details that culminated in the violent end of my dad’s life, I have divulged how my life was callously shattered and nearly destroyed when I was just a nine-year-old boy. Yet, this ruthless assassination would not be the beginning, end, or even the defining moment of my life. Now that you know how my dad’s life ended, I hope you will read on as I share how my life was instead defined by the loving lessons of faith instilled in me prior to this tragic day.

It would be this faith that would allow me to navigate through adversities and to overcome my mistakes. In shock and overwhelmed by grief, I would make two seemingly innocuous decisions. One would unknowingly set me on a destructive path while the other would save me from a life of bitterness, resentment, and pain. It would be this faith that would intercede at a decisive point in my life and allow me to find my way back from the destructive path to the path I was intended to take, the path that led to a life blessed more that I could ever have imagined!


God bless!


[1] English Standard Version (ESV)

[2] Amplified Bible, Classic Edition (AMPC)

© C. Carpenter and Surviving December, 2017. Unauthorized use of this material without express written permission is strictly prohibited.

A Difficult Beginning:


I meant to have this ready to post on Mother’s Day, as her day serves as a reminder that my birth was so very difficult on her. To this day I have forceps scars from my difficult birth, a birth I was not expected to survive and nearly cost Mom her life. The explanations of what happened have become part of my narrative as I have had to explain the source of the scars my entire life. These physical scars serve as a daily reminder how fortunate I am to be alive, how lucky I have been to function and live a normal life. When I see someone else that suffers from some of the terrible afflictions that are found in this world, I feel a profound personal connection as I know so very well that could have been me. The experience of the birth of my own children would only intensify this, giving me a greater sense of empathy.

My dad was serving overseas in the Marines when I was born so he could not be with my mom. Mom had a difficult pregnancy with me and had gained only thirteen pounds. As a result, her doctors were concerned she would have a difficult delivery which was exactly what happened. During my birth, the doctor allowed me to progress too far and I reached a point that I was wedged tight in the birth canal. The vital signs for my mother had reached a point prompting the doctor to decide who to save, and the decision was made to save my mom. As a result, the doctor had to very quickly and robustly deliver me with forceps.

Although I survived the birth, my head was so deformed from the forceps that the doctor thought I would die or that I would have brain damage if I lived. As a result, Mom was not allowed to see me until the doctors saw I would recover. Obviously this was extremely unsettling for Mom. Though I recovered without any brain damage, I still have the physical scars on my head and neck from the forceps to remind me of this miracle. After learning from my aunt I had been born, Dad did not comprehend exactly what happened when he had written these words in his first letter to Mom after I was born:

“…she said something about you being cut deep but I didn’t quite understand. I sure feel sorry for you. I know you went through a lot and I am thankful that we had the Lord on our side. I will be so happy when I can hold Clay in my arms…I’m glad we have one of our own that I will be able to hold before to long…”

Though I have known this story as long as I can remember, having been there for the birth of my children I cannot imagine what my parents went through. As I read the words from the letter Dad wrote, I am reminded of the birth of my first child. As she was born, after a night of labor she too reached a point and the doctor decided her head was too large for a natural birth. At this point, the doctor decided to stop the process and schedule a cesarean section a few hours later that morning. I cannot adequately express the emotions I was feeling.

Thankfully, I only had a couple of hours to get nervous, so I was able to appear reasonably calm as I was with my wife in the delivery room. When my daughter was born she was screaming as loud as she could as the nurse asked if I wanted to see my little girl. As I reached out to her, that tiny baby grasped my finger and stopped crying as she heard my voice. At this point I was overwhelmed with emotions and could not stop crying, which is something I almost never do for any reason. My mom was watching through an observation window and all she could see was me crying harder than I had ever cried before. So my mom start crying too as she was afraid something terrible had happened to the baby, my wife, or both.

I now understand how scared I was that something would go wrong, just as it had when I was born. When God had my new born baby girl reach out, grasp my finger, and stop crying, all my suppressed emotions were released and I was overwhelmed with tears of joy. As I write this, I feel a profound sense of empathy for my parents as they missed out on an experience that can never be relived. I am thankful that Mom saved this letter so I would have something to help me remember Dad. Yet, I am sadden he could not be there to experience with Mom the miracle of my birth and to comfort her during our recoveries.

Even as I was born, God was there with me as I have never suffered any ill effects from this traumatic beginning to my life. The doctors continued to test me for signs of permanent neurological problems for several months. Mom still remembers the doctor finally telling her there were no signs of any neurological damage, and no more testing would be needed. If fact, Mom chuckled when she recalled the doctor telling her that if I was any brighter I would be obnoxious. Truth be known, it has been said more times than I care to admit that I have been more than a bit obnoxious.

I am thankful God has given me this gift of life, thankful for the dad I had for nine plus years, thankful for all my mom, my wife, and my daughters. I would like to end this blog with the following words of Rabbi Harold S. Kushner from the end of his book, “Living a Life That Matters“:

“We matter, not because of our achievements but because we are loved by God and loved by the people around us. That love may not shield us from pain, death, and loss, but will make them more bearable, and that will be enough.” 


© C. Carpenter and Surviving December, 2017. Unauthorized use of this material without express written permission is strictly prohibited.



Faith gives us Hope:


At the moment we learn the unthinkable has happened, in that moment, the shock, the pain, and the anguish we naturally feel are capable of overwhelming all that we are. Yet, as the great Evangelist Billy Graham stated, “God’s mercy and grace give me hope – for myself, and for our world”. It is God’s promise of hope that has given me the strength to endure the difficult times and overcome the anguish. This is why I know more now than I did when it happened, why a police psychologist saw the need for me to represent to a grieving family that there was still hope (see “Responding to the Call“). In Jeremiah 29:11 the Lord declares, “For I know the plans I have for you, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.[1] Life has shown me that God did still had plans for a future for me. As I look back at the plans God still had for me, I have come to realize that “hope” may be the greatest gift God gives us.

When I think of faith and hope, I often remember the of Dennis Byrd[2]. Byrd was a NFL defensive lineman that was paralyzed playing football. He relied of his faith, hope, and the love of his wife and family to recover from a catastrophic neck injury. Although the hit had shattered a vertebrae in his neck and left him paralyzed from the neck down, Byrd refused to quit. He worked relentlessly day after day through excruciating physical therapy with an exhausting passion and determination to recover. Beating all the odds, Byrd was able to recover and walk. [3]

“A man has a body, a mind and a spirit. There are times in a man’s life when his body tells him it can’t continue on. Where his mind will tell him that the task set for him is too hard for him to accomplish. Those two don’t matter. It’s a man’s will, a man’s spirit that will tell him you can do this! It will make the mind and the body follow along.” – Dennis Byrd

It has always been my belief that our instincts are given to us by God, particularly our survival instincts. In her review of The Truth About Grief: The Myth of Its Five Stages by Ruth Davis Konigsberg, Margarita Tartakovsky M.S. explains that in her book Konigsberg discusses how Kübler-Ross’s five stages (and books on grief in general) erroneously show a hopeless road, making people think that they must grieve for the rest of their lives. To the contrary, Konigsberg writes that, according to research, “Loss is forever, but acute grief is not, a distinction that frequently gets blurred.” In addition, Tartakovsky points out how Konigsberg reveals that the latest research, positive emotions play a pivotal role in helping people deal with loss. Koenigsberg writes in the Afterword:

“Perhaps just the knowledge that our survival instinct is strong, and that a great many have not only endured terrible losses but have also thrived, can be a source of hope, something that I found to be quite scarce in our grief culture.”[4]

The importance of faith in God, and the hope it can give a person that has experienced tragedy and/or a traumatic event has been confirmed by research time and time again. It is this faith in a power greater than ourselves that gives us the confidence “in the things we hope for” which allows us “to be certain of the things we cannot see“. One example of this can be found in research conducted by Dr. Donald Meichenbaum[5] which concluded the positive affect a persons faith has on the ability of a person to successfully cope with the trauma when it occurs in their lives:

“Offer a degree of closure on a painful period and encourage transition behaviors to engage in new adaptive activities and nurture hope. As Snyder (2002) observes: there is a need to nurture hope and optimism that leads to engaging in goal- directed behaviors and embracing positive strivings and visions. Encourage access to inner strengths, empowerment, control and acceptance. One’s faith conveys hope and sense of mastery. The people can have some control over their lives, hope that they can find a way to give their experience some meaning, and hope that in spite of tragic events, life is not over and can improve.”[6]

In 1959 The Dalai Lama was forced to flee Tibet to Dharamsala, northern India, due to the brutal suppression of his country by Chinese troops. Nonetheless, he has never given up hope to return to Tibet and has become an icon of peace and tolerance. According to The Dalai Lama, there is a Tibetan saying that “Tragedy should be utilized as a source of strength.” The Dalai Lama explained that, “No matter what sort of difficulties, how painful experience is, if we lose our hope, that’s our real disaster.

According to the priest Martin Luther (1483-1546), who would be a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation, “Everything that is done in this world is done by hope”. Helen Keller (1880-1968) was able to overcome going both deaf and blind to becoming the first deaf blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree and would become and author and social advocate and she famously claimed “Hope sees the invisible, feels the intangible, and achieves the impossible.” Actor director Christopher Reeve (1952-2004) overcame an accident that left him a quadriplegic and claimed “Once you choose hope, anything’s possible.” So many more people who overcame a wide spectrum of difficulties would agree with what is taught in the Bible, the importance of hope to get us through difficult times.

Later in my life when I came face to face with a career ending back injury that surgery failed to relieve me of chronic pain, I would again appreciate the importance hope held to get us through difficult times. God wants us to have hope, which is why the Apostle Paul asserts in Romans 15:4, “For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us, so that through the endurance taught in the Scriptures and the encouragement they provide we might have hope.[7] Similarly, the Apostle Paul professes in Romans 15:13 “May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.[8] Likewise, the Apostle Paul advocates in Romans 12:12 “Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer.[9]

This is the hope I rely on today. No matter what happens to me, regardless of how severe the pain may become, how frustrating the side effects and the other symptoms, I know that God is with me. I was once asked by a supervisor why I did not just give in. My answer seemed so simple to me, to give in was to give up hope and I had to have hope! At times, hope is all you have, and if you give up hope, nothing great could happen. I might never recover, I might not be able to do anything to change that, but I did have a choice, and it would never be my choice to give up hope! It is this hope that I hope everyone can find, the hope of a survivor.

[1] New International Version (NIV).

[2] Dennis DeWayne Byrd played in the NFL four years for the New York prior to his injury in 1992. He is a devout Christian and lives in Tulsa with his wife and their four children.

[3] Byrd, Dennis, and Michael D’Orso. “Rise and Walk: The Trial and Triumph of Dennis Byrd”. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.

[4] Konigsberg, Ruth Davis. 2011. The Truth About Grief. New York: Simon & Schuster. (p. 197)

[5] Dr. Donald Meichenbaum, PhD, is a Professor Emeritus, University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Research Director of The Melissa Institute for Violence Prevention and Treatment Miami, Florida; and has authored several books about post-traumatic stress.

[6] Trauma, Spirituality and Recovery, Toward a Spiritually-Integrated Psychotherapy by Donald Meichenbaum.

[7] New International Version (NIV).

[8] English Standard Version (ESV).

[9] English Standard Version (ESV).

© C. Carpenter and Surviving December, 2017. Unauthorized use of this material without express written permission is strictly prohibited.